How to Implement Data Transfer Pattern in Laravel

A Step-by-Step Guide to Applying Data Transfer Patterns in Laravel


3 min read

How to Implement Data Transfer Pattern in Laravel


  • PHP

  • Basic of Laravel

Let's begin by exploring the Data Transfer Pattern in Laravel:

To illustrate, I'll use a CRUD application as a test case while implementing BO (Business Object), DAO (Data Access Object), and DTO (Data Transfer Object) patterns.

first, let's define what each of these patterns represents:

  1. Business Object (BO): This represents the business logic of your application. It contains the methods and functions that perform operations on your data.

  2. Data Access Object (DAO): This pattern is responsible for handling the interactions with the database. It abstracts away the database operations from the business logic.

  3. Data Transfer Object (DTO): DTOs are used to transfer data between different layers of your application. They help in decoupling the layers and make your code more maintainable.

Now, let's create a simple CRUD application to manage "Products".

  1. Create Laravel Project:

     laravel new crud-app
     cd crud-app
  2. Generate Model, Controller, and Migration:

     php artisan make:model Product -m
     php artisan make:controller ProductController
  3. Create Migration:

     public function up()
         Schema::create('products', function (Blueprint $table) {
             $table->decimal('price', 8, 2);
  4. Run migration:

     php artisan migrate
  5. Create BO, DAO, and DTO:

    Note: Create folders for BO, DAO, and DTO inside the app directory or according to your folder structure or design pattern, such as creating a BO folder in the Service folder.

     mkdir app/BO
     mkdir app/DAO
     mkdir app/DTO
  6. Now, create the files ProductBO.php, ProductDAO.php, and ProductDTO.php inside their respective folders.

  7. Implement BO (ProductBO.php):

     namespace App\BO;
     use App\DAO\ProductDAO;
     use App\DTO\ProductDTO;
     class ProductBO
         protected $productDAO;
         public function __construct(ProductDAO $productDAO)
             $this->productDAO = $productDAO;
         public function getAllProducts()
             return $this->productDAO->getAll();
         // Implement other business logic methods like add, edit, delete. etc..
  8. Implement the DAO (ProductDAO.php):

     namespace App\DAO;
     use App\Models\Product;
     class ProductDAO
         public function getAll()
             return Product::all();
         // Implement other database operations like fetching, manipulation
  9. Implement DTO (ProductDTO.php):

     namespace App\DTO;
     class ProductDTO
         public $id;
         public $name;
         public $description;
         public $price;
         public function __construct($id, $name, $description, $price)
             $this->id = $id;
             $this->name = $name;
             $this->description = $description;
             $this->price = $price;
  10. Implement Controller (ProductController.php):

    namespace App\Http\Controllers;
    use App\BO\ProductBO;
    use App\DTO\ProductDTO;
    class ProductController extends Controller
        protected $productBO;
        public function __construct(ProductBO $productBO)
            $this->productBO = $productBO;
        public function index()
            $products = $this->productBO->getAllProducts();
            return response()->json($products);
        // Implement other CRUD methods like add, update, delete. etc ..


Now you have a good understanding of data transfer patterns. This is a basic setup for implementing CRUD operations in Laravel using BO, DAO, and DTO patterns. You can expand this by adding methods for creating, updating, and deleting operations, as well as form validation, error handling, and more advanced features as needed. In upcoming blogs, we will cover the advanced implementation of data transfer patterns in Laravel.

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